Tuesday, 12 February 2019

PQQ benefits - Pyrroloquinoline Quinone - Mitochondrial Biogenesis

PQQ benefits and how they help the brain

Have you been looking for a supplement to combat ageing? Well PQQ may be it. Scientists found out about this compound only 50 years ago. There have been several health studies conducted about the potential benefits it provides the human body, the brain in particular.

What is PQQ?
PQQ is like a bodyguard to a man’s brain. PQQ is the acronym for pyrroloquinoline quinone. It is a compound found naturally in breast milk, soil, and certain foods. Pyrroloquinoline quinone PQQ helps the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cells) thrive and continue to give us good health and longevity. According to researchers, PQQ provides neuroprotection, aiding in the formation of new mitochondria cells in the brain. This is very important if you wish to fight ageing issues such as loss of cognitive abilities and decreased energy levels.
Health benefits of PQQ pyrroloquinoline quinone
Here are the 13 health benefits that PQQ may provide you.
Treats obesity
PQQ may be a feasible weight loss solution. A study using rats showed that a diet deficient of PQQ reduced their metabolism by 10 per cent. Another study conducted on obese infant mice discovered that supplementing with PQQ increased their metabolism, reduced body fat, and may prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. To further validate PQQ as an effective remedy against obesity, research on humans needs to be conducted.

Relieves inflammation
Inflammation opens the floodgate to slew of health problems, including accelerated ageing and neurological problems. Chronic inflammation in the brain is common to many neurodegenerative ailments such as Alzheimer’s disease and stroke.  PQQ may be able to combat this problem. Research shows that individuals who supplement with PQQ are protected against brain inflammation. Another study conducted on animals showed that PQQ has the ability to protect against inflammation may decrease the effects of traumatic brain injuries (e.g., concussion).

Enhances brain function
One of the main benefits of this compound is how much it enhances brain functionality. It stimulates the production and release of brand-new nerve cells (called nerve growth factor) that assist in neural tasks. These nerve cells communicate with each other to ensure that organs and other bodily functions are running smoothly. Studies appear to show that PQQ improves the memory, thinking, learning, and other cognitive abilities in ageing adults. In addition, research shows that PQQ has the ability to heal and rejuvenate damaged nerve cells, particularly in the brain.

Reduces oxidative stress
Oxidative stress can cause many different diseases – cancer, brain disorders, diabetes, heart problems, and more. This happens when an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidant defense occurs; a problem worsened by aging. PQQ helps boost the production of DJ-1, a protein that supports healthy brain function. This protein fights off oxidative stress by enhancing cell function and survival. In addition, PQQ protects new nerve cells from oxidative damage. This allows these nerve cells to survive and be able to potentially form new brain cells.

May extend lifespan
This compound may be able to improve your longevity. As one gets older, the brain suffers from multiple sources of damage. As the damage accumulates over time, this usually leads to the formation of brain disorders and chronic diseases such as stroke. Supplementing with PQQ may help guard against these neurological issues, especially as one gets older. And a big reason for this is because of its support of the mitochondria. Research shows that PQQ aids in the creation of new mitochondrial content. This increases longevity as well as improve energy utilisation and protection from free radicals.

Promotes mitochondrial function
Piggybacking off the last benefit, PQQ is a big proponent of the mitochondria. It aids and supports the mitochondria by promoting new content as well as improving the function of the current mitochondria. The mitochondria are responsible for transforming the food we eat into the energy needed to power our cells. This allows our cells to perform at peak function. Aiding the mitochondria promotes longevity and reducing the onset of age-related diseases. A human study showed that supplementing with PQQ rejuvenates mitochondrial function and restore new mitochondrial numbers. The study also showed improvements in the participants’ urinary oxidant levels, an indicator that the mitochondria are performing well.

Decreases cholesterol
Cholesterol is a waxy substance that’s found in all the cells in your body. Your body needs some cholesterol to serve a lot of functions, including the creation of Vitamin D and hormones. The problem lies when a man has too much cholesterol. High cholesterol clogs up blood vessels, making the heart work harder to perform its daily tasks. Ultimately, this may lead to a heart attack and/or a stroke. PQQ may help regulate cholesterol levels. A Japanese study showed that individuals who supplemented with PQQ disodium salt lowered their bad LDL cholesterol levels.

Improves sleep, mood, and fatigue
Millions of men don’t get enough sleep on a nightly basis. Poor sleep quality is linked to a slew of chronic diseases such as stroke. In addition, a lack of sleep negatively affects your mood and causes fatigue throughout the day. PQQ may be what you need if you have had issues getting good quality sleep. A 2-month research study showed that individuals who used PQQ improved overall sleep quality. They were able to fall asleep with no issues and slept longer. Also, the subjects showed significant improvements in their mood and energy levels.

Improves memory and reasoning
The biggest issue most men face as they get older is the loss of cognitive function. According to the Alzheimer’s Association, men are at greater risk of developing age-related cognitive deficiencies that often cause memory loss and the inability to think clearly. Several studies point out how PQQ could reverse this trend. PQQ may prevent brain decline that stems from ageing. Human and animal studies demonstrate its ability to improve one’s memory and reasoning skills. The main reason for this is due to PQQ’s ability to trigger mitochondrial growth and reduce oxidative stress.

Protects your heart from stroke
According to the CDC, heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. More than half of the deaths due to heart disease in 2015 were in men. PQQ may be able to curtail those statistics. An animal study showed that PQQ improves cardiac functions and reduce damages for heart attack sufferers. And these benefits can happen when PQQ is taken before or after the heart attack occurred.

Another study compared the effects of PQQ to standard heart attack medicine (metoprolol). Both reduced the size of the damaged areas and protected against further trauma. However, PQQ did a better job of reducing cellular damage. This led researchers to deem the compound as the superior medicine to protect the heart against oxidative stress. Further evidence has shown that PQQ is highly effective at supporting mitochondrial function within the heart cells.

Decreases insulin resistance
Insulin resistance interferes with our ability to effectively regulate our sugar intake. This can lead to health problems such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Similar to exercise, PQQ reduces insulin resistance by boosting mitochondrial activity in muscle cells. The compound also inhibits, PTP1B, a protein that’s been shown to cause insulin resistance. (High levels of this protein is found in people suffering from breast cancer)

Improves immune health
It is widely known how essential it is to have an efficient immune system. An efficient immune system prevents the onset of chronic diseases and fights off inflammation. A study showed that mice lacking enough PQQ experienced poor immune function. In another mice study, increased intake of the compound boosted immune health. It did this by increasing levels of two vital immune regulators: CD8+ cells and lymphocytes.

PQQ is neuroprotective against Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s, and cognitive injuries
One thing you definitely know by now is that PQQ is neuroprotective. This compound does a good job of protecting memory and cognitive skills. The worst diseases deriving from poor brain health is Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Both diseases affect millions of people worldwide, the elderly in particular. PQQ may protect against the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s disease.

One study shows that it protects the brain against powerful toxins and proteins that are associated with these cognitive diseases. And the compound protects neurons from overstimulation, a condition called excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity of the neurons is associated with seizures, schizophrenia, and other neurodegenerative diseases.

How to take PQQ
PQQ dosage
Here are the recommended dosage amounts for PQQ supplements:

To boost mitochondrial activity in your cells….0.075 to 0.3mg/kg per day
To decrease chronic inflammation in the average-size male….20mg per day

Supplementation of PQQ is great. But to really maximise your exposure to the compound, your diet should consist of PQQ-rich natural food sources and plant-based foods. Here is a list of such foods:

Sweet Potato
Egg Yolk
Green Pepper
Fava Bean
Green Peppers
PQQ supplement
After combing through a litany of online stores, here are five PQQ supplements that have gained a ton of favorable reviews. (Note: This is not a top five list.)

Doctor’s Best, Best PQQ, 20 mg, 30 Veggie Caps
Jarrow Formulas, Ubiquinol, QH+ PQQ, 30 Softgels
Swanson Ultra: PQQ Pyrroloquinoline Quinone
PQQ + CoQ10 – 60 Capsules – Oral Supplement for Cardiovascular and Mental Support by Dr’s Hope
PQQ 20mg (Pyrroloquinoline Quinone) 30 Vegecaps
PQQ side effects and dangers
As with any supplement, there is a likelihood of side effects. PPQ is no different. In one study, rats were given a dosage as high as 100mg/kg per day but experienced no side effects. However, some humans who took the compound experienced insomnia, mild headaches, and even energy crashes during the midday. The reason for these side effects could be that they either took too much or their body is sensitive to a direct dosage of pyrroloquinoline quinone.

Either way, it is wise to start off with a small dose (0.075mg) for at least one week. If you can handle that, feel free to slightly increase the dosage. It’s recommended that you don’t take no more than 20mg per day.

PQQ supplement may be the next best supplement for men
Protein powder and fish oils may have to make room for PQQ. This compound shows a lot of promise, especially for older men. PQQ may be the best anti-ageing supplement/nutrient that most guys don’t know about. Some who have supplemented with it felt that it immediately:

Improved their mood
Improved their focus and ability to remember things
Boosted their energy levels
Improved workout performance
And those are just the immediate benefits. Other benefits such as lower cholesterol and an improved immune system will obviously take time to manifest. Overall, pyrroloquinoline quinone is a substance that you should consider getting acquainted with as you get older.

Friday, 8 February 2019

SAMe Supplements Benefits and Use

- If you live with a condition like osteoarthritis or depression, you may already know how it can affect other aspects of your health, contributing to issues like weight gain, difficulty sleeping, and chronic pain.

One remedy said to ease depression, arthritis, and other conditions is the supplement SAMe, also known as SAM-e, ademetionine, or S-adenosylmethionine. SAMe is the synthetic form of a compound that is produced naturally in the body from methionine (an essential amino acid) and adenosine triphosphate (an energy-producing compound).

SAMe isn't found naturally in food. The body typically makes what it needs for good health, however, some disease states and low levels of methionine, folate, or vitamin B12 are believed to contribute to low levels of SAMe.

It's thought that SAMe can help promote the production of chemicals known to play a key role in a variety of processes in the body, such as mood regulation, immune function, and pain perception.
Why Do People Take SAMe Supplements?
SAMe is typically used for the following health issues:

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
SAMe is also said to enhance mental performance, boost liver health, slow the ageing process, and help people quit smoking.

The Benefits: Can It Really Help?
Here's a look at some of the research on the possible benefits of SAMe.

1) Osteoarthritis: SAMe shows promise in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. It is said to relieve pain and have anti-inflammatory properties, and some research suggests that it may promote cartilage repair.

In a report published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2009, researchers analysed four previously published clinical trials (with a total of 656 participants) and found that the use of SAMe may help reduce pain and improve function in people with osteoarthritis. Since the reviewed trials were of poor quality, however, the review's authors deemed these findings inconclusive.

2) Depression: In a research review published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2016, scientists analysed eight previously published clinical trials comparing SAMe to the antidepressants imipramine, desipramine, or escitalopram, or a placebo.

SAMe was superior to a placebo when used with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, but the evidence was considered low quality. Compared to imipramine, fewer participants experienced adverse effects when treated with an injectable form of SAMe. SAMe wasn't different from the placebo or antidepressants such as imipramine or escitalopram when used alone.

In their conclusion, the review's authors state that the use of SAMe for depression needs to be investigated further in larger and better-planned trials "given the absence of high-quality evidence and the inability to draw firm conclusions based on that evidence."

3) Fibromyalgia: In a research review published in the Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in 2010, scientists looked at 70 previously published clinical trials evaluating the use of various types of complementary therapies for chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Along with magnesium, L-carnitine, acupuncture, and several types of meditation practice, the review's authors named SAMe among the therapies with the most potential for further research on their effectiveness against these conditions.

4) Liver Disease: SAMe may improve liver function in people with chronic liver disease, suggests a research review published in the journal PLoS One in 2015. However, in evaluating the 12 previously published clinical trials included in the review, the authors also found that SAMe may of limited benefit in the treatment of certain liver conditions such as viral hepatitis and cholestasis.

Possible Side Effects
SAMe may trigger a number of side effects, including anxiety, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, headache, heartburn, insomnia, gas, low blood sugar, nausea, nervousness, skin rash, and vomiting. Large amounts of SAMe may cause mania (an abnormally elevated mood). There's also some concern that the use of SAMe can trigger an allergic reaction in some people. 

If you have bipolar disorder, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Parkinson's disease, or other health conditions, you should only use SAMe under the supervision of your healthcare provider as it may worsen symptoms. 

It's important to note that there may be risks when combining SAMe with medication or other supplements. You shouldn't take SAMe in combination with antidepressants, cough medicine, diabetes medication, levodopa (L-dopa), L-tryptophan, medication that affects serotonin levels, St. John's wort, or other medication unless you are being monitored by a health professional. SAMe should be discontinued at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.

The safety of SAMe in children, pregnant or nursing women, or people with kidney or liver disease hasn't been established. You can get tips on using supplements safely, but you should speak with your primary care provider before taking SAMe to discuss whether it's appropriate for you. Keep in mind that SAMe shouldn't be used as a substitute for standard treatment.
Source - VeryWell   

And now the science bit
S-Adenosyl methionine[alternative names is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation. Although these anabolic reactions occur throughout the body, most SAM-e is produced and consumed in the liver. More than 40 methyl transfers from SAM-e are known, to various substrates such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and secondary metabolites. It is made from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and methionine by methionine adenosyltransferase. SAM was first discovered by Giulio Cantoni in 1952.

In bacteria, SAM-e is bound by the SAM riboswitch, which regulates genes involved in methionine or cysteine biosynthesis. In eukaryotic cells, SAM-e serves as a regulator of a variety of processes including DNA, tRNA, and rRNA methylation; immune response; amino acid metabolism; transsulfuration; and more. In plants, SAM-e is crucial to the biosynthesis of ethylene, an important plant hormone and signaling molecule.

SAM-e cycle
The reactions that produce, consume, and regenerate SAM-e are called the SAM-e cycle. In the first step of this cycle, the SAM-dependent methylases  that use SAM-e as a substrate produce S-adenosyl homocysteine as a product. S-Adenosyl homocysteine is a strong negative regulator of nearly all SAM-dependent methylases despite their biological diversity. This is hydrolysed to homocysteine and adenosine by S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and the homocysteine recycled back to methionine through transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, by one of the two classes of methionine synthases (i.e. cobalamin-dependent or cobalamin-independent. This methionine can then be converted back to SAM-e, completing the cycle. In the rate-limiting step of the SAM cycle, MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) irreversibly reduces 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate.

Radical SAM-e enzymes
A large number of iron-sulfur cluster-containing enzymes cleave SAM-e reductively to produce a 5′-deoxyadenosyl 5′-radical as an intermediate, and are called radical SAM enzymes. Most enzymes with this capability share a region of sequence homology that includes the motif CxxxCxxC or a close variant. The radical intermediate allows enzymes to perform a wide variety of unusual chemical reactions. Examples of radical SAM enzymes include spore photoproduct lyase, activases of pyruvate formate lyase and anaerobic sulfatases, lysine 2,3-aminomutase, and various enzymes of cofactor biosynthesis, peptide modification, metalloprotein cluster formation, tRNA modification, lipid metabolism, etc. Some radical SAM-e enzymes use a second SAM-e as a methyl donor. Radical SAM enzymes are much more abundant in anaerobic bacteria than in aerobic organisms. They can be found in all domains of life and are largely unexplored. A recent bioinformatics study concluded that this family of enzymes includes at least 114,000 sequences including 65 unique reactions.
Polyamine biosynthesis
Another major role of SAM-e is in polyamine biosynthesis. Here, SAM-e is decarboxylated by adenosylmethionine decarboxylase to form S-adenosylmethioninamine. This compound then donates its n-propylamine group in the biosynthesis of polyamines such as spermidine and spermine from putrescine.

SAM-e is required for cellular growth and repair. It is also involved in the biosynthesis of several hormones and neurotransmitters that affect mood, such as epinephrine. Methyltransferases are also responsible for the addition of methyl groups to the 2′ hydroxyls of the first and second nucleotides next to the 5′ cap in messenger RNA.
As of 2012 the evidence was inconclusive as to whether SAM can mitigate the pain of osteoarthritis; clinical trials that had been conducted were too small from which to generalize. A 2016 study concluded that for major depressive disorder, "Given the absence of high-quality evidence and the inability to draw firm conclusions based on that evidence, the use of SAMe for the treatment of depression in adults should be investigated further."

The SAM-e cycle has been closely tied to the liver since 1947 because people with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver would accumulate large amounts of methionine in their blood. While multiple lines of evidence from laboratory tests on cells and animal models suggest that SAM might be useful to treat various liver diseases, as of 2012 SAM had not been studied in any large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that would allow an assessment of its efficacy and safety.

Oral SAM achieves peak plasma concentrations three to five hours after ingestion of an enteric-coated tablet (400–1000 mg). The half-life is about 100 minutes.
Adverse effects
Gastrointestinal disorder, dyspepsia and anxiety can occur with SAM consumption. Long-term effects are unknown. SAM is a weak DNA-alkylating agent.

Another reported side effect of SAM is insomnia; therefore, the supplement is often taken in the morning. Other reports of mild side effects include lack of appetite, constipation, nausea, dry mouth, sweating, and anxiety/nervousness, but in placebo-controlled studies, these side effects occur at about the same incidence in the placebo groups.[medical citation needed]

SAM-e has recently been shown to play a role in epigenetic regulation. DNA methylation is a key regulator in epigenetic modification during mammalian cell development and differentiation. In mouse models, excess levels of SAM-e has been implicated in erroneous methylation patterns associated with diabetic neuropathy. SAM-e serves as the methyl donor in cytosine methylation, which is a key epigenetic regulatory process. Because of this impact on epigenetic regulation, SAM-e has been tested as an anti-cancer treatment. Cancer cell proliferation is dependent on having low levels of DNA methylation. In vitro addition has been shown to remethylate promoter sequences and decrease the production of proto-oncogenes.

Deficiencies in radical SAM-e enzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases including congenital heart disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and increased viral susceptibility.
Interactions and contraindications
Taking SAM at the same time as some drugs may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome, a potentially dangerous condition caused by having too much serotonin. These drugs include dextromethorphan (Robitussin), meperidine (Demerol), pentazocine (Talwin), and tramadol (Ultram). SAM may also interact with antidepressant medications increasing the potential for their side effects and reduce the effectiveness of levodopa for Parkinson's disease.[medical citation needed]

People who have bipolar disorder should not use SAM because it increases the risk of manic episodes.
Availability in different countries
In the United States and Canada, SAM is sold as a dietary supplement under the marketing name SAM-e (also spelled SAME or SAMe; pronounced "sam ee" or "Sammy"[citation needed]); it was introduced in the US in 1999, after the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act was passed in 1994.

It was introduced as a prescription drug in Italy in 1979, in Spain in 1985, and in Germany in 1989; as of 2012, it was marketed as a prescription drug in Russia, India, China, Italy, Germany, Vietnam, and Mexico.
Alternative names
 SAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine
Source Wikipedia

Thursday, 7 February 2019

Drynaria fortunei - Gu-Sui-Bu - Benefits and Properties

Drynaria fortunei, commonly known in China as Gu-Sui-Bu, is a species of basket fern of the family Polypodiaceae. The plant is native to Eastern Asia, including eastern China. Preparations from the roots of Drynaria have been used in traditional Asian medicine for aiding in the healing of bone fractures and for treating rheumatoid arthritis. 
Excessive bone loss, known as osteopenia or osteoporosis, is characterised by an imbalance between the bone-destroying cells, osteoclasts, and bone-building cells, osteoblasts. Human and animal data showed that Drynaria inhibiting osteoclast function without entirely halting it, as bisphosphonate drugs (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate etc.) do. It stimulates osteoblasts to produce more healthy bone tissue. In addition, Drynaria attracts mesenchymal stem cells to accelerate the damaged bone repair. Drynaria has been shown to provide anti-osteoporotic effects in female mammals following the loss of ovaries and in animals with experimental osteoporosis induced by rheumatoid arthritis.

In addition, Drynaria extract exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity, protect the kidney from renal failure and possess an anti-tumour activity against multiple myeloma. 

Potential indications for the use of Drynaria in humans include:

Poor dental health
Periodontal gum disease
Prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women and people with rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and those who take steroids (prednisone) on a long-term basis
Inflammation and pain management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
Adjunct therapy of multiple myeloma
Adjunct treatment of renal insufficiency

Potential side effects:

Dizziness and lightheadedness
Mild nausea
Gastrointestinal discomfort

Potential drug interactions:

Bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate etc)
Denosumab (prolia)
Teriparatide (Forteo)


Chronic anticoagulation therapy

Complementary natural products:

Calcium Lactate
Indian Thorny Bamboo
Magnesium Malate
Strontium Citrate
Vitamin D

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